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Also known as stock-share portals, stock market portals or stock exchange portals are Web-based applications that facilitates the process of informing the share-holders with substantial online data such as the latest price, ask/bids, the latest News, reports and announcements. Some stock portals use online gateways through a central depository system (CDS) for the visitors (ram) to buy or sell their shares or manage their portfolio .

Search portals aggregate results from several search engines into one page. You can find search portals specialized in a product, for example property search portals. Library search portals are also known as discovery interfaces.

Property search portals aggregate data about properties for sale by real estate agents. Examples in the UK include Zoopla , Manolo Blahnik Tweed Slingback Pumps View Cheap Price Clearance Low Cost New And Fashion Clearance Websites 1WqikKfif
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. Examples in the US include Propertini .

A tender portal is a gateway for government suppliers to bid on providing goods and services. Tender portals allow users to search, modify, submit, review and archive data in order to provide a complete online tendering process.

Using online tendering, bidders can do any of the following:

Hosted Web portals gained popularity and a number of companies began offering them as a hosted service. The hosted portal market fundamentally changed the composition of portals. In many ways they served simply as a tool for publishing information instead of the loftier goals of integrating legacy applications or presenting correlated data from distributed databases. The early hosted portal companies such as Hyperoffice.com or the now defunct InternetPortal.com focused on collaboration and scheduling in addition to the distribution of corporate data. As hosted Web portals have risen in popularity their feature set has grown to include hosted databases, document management, email, discussion forums and more. Hosted portals automatically personalize the content generated from their modules to provide a personalized experience to their users. In this regard they have remained true to the original goals of the earlier corporate Web portals.

Emerging new classes of Internet portals called Cloud Portals are showcasing the power of API (Application Programming Interface) rich software systems leveraging SOA (service-oriented architecture, Web services, and custom data exchange) to accommodate machine to machine interaction creating a more fluid user experience for connecting users spanning multiple domains during a given "session". Cloud portals like Brunello Cucinelli Monilli LowTop Sneakers Perfect For Sale ttIjW
show what is possible using Enterprise Mashup and Web Service integration approaches to building cloud portals.

JavaScript Garden is a growing collection of documentation about the most quirky parts of the JavaScript programming language. It gives advice to avoid common mistakes and subtle bugs, as well as performance issues and bad practices, that non-expert JavaScript programmers may encounter on their endeavours into the depths of the language.

JavaScript Garden does not aim to teach you JavaScript. Former knowledge of the language is strongly recommended in order to understand the topics covered in this guide. In order to learn the basics of the language, please head over to the excellent on the Mozilla Developer Network.

The Authors

This guide is the work of two lovely Stack Overflow users, Ivo Wetzel (Writing) and Zhang Yi Jiang (Design).

It's currently maintained by Tim Ruffles .



JavaScript Garden is hosted on GitHub, but Cramer Development supports us with a mirror at .


JavaScript Garden is published under the and hosted on . If you find errors or typos please or a pull request on the repository. You can also find us in the on Stack Overflow chat.

Everything in JavaScript acts like an object, with the only two exceptions being and .

A common misconception is that number literals cannot be used as objects. That is because a flaw in JavaScript's parser tries to parse the on a number as a floating point literal.

There are a couple of workarounds that can be used to make number literals act as objects too.

Objects as a Data Type

Objects in JavaScript can also be used as ; they mainly consist of named properties mapping to values.

Using an object literal - notation - it is possible to create a plain object. This new object inherits from and does not have own properties defined.

Accessing Properties

The properties of an object can be accessed in two ways, via either the dot notation or the square bracket notation.

The notations work almost identically, with the only difference being that the square bracket notation allows for dynamic setting of properties and the use of property names that would otherwise lead to a syntax error.

Deleting Properties

The only way to remove a property from an object is to use the operator; setting the property to or only removes the associated with the property, but not the .

The above outputs both and - only was removed and is therefore missing from the output.

Notation of Keys

Object properties can be both notated as plain characters and as strings. Due to another mis-design in JavaScript's parser, the above will throw a prior to ECMAScript 5.

This error arises from the fact that is a ; therefore, it must be notated as a to ensure that it will be correctly interpreted by older JavaScript engines.

JavaScript does not feature a classical inheritance model; instead, it uses a one.

While this is often considered to be one of JavaScript's weaknesses, the prototypal inheritance model is in fact more powerful than the classic model. It is, for example, fairly trivial to build a classic model on top of a prototypal model, while the other way around is a far more difficult task.

JavaScript is the only widely used language that features prototypal inheritance, so it can take time to adjust to the differences between the two models.

The first major difference is that inheritance in JavaScript uses .

In the code above, the object will inherit from both and ; hence, it will have access to the function that was defined on . It will also have access to the property of the one instance that is its prototype. It is important to note that does not create a new instance, but reuses the one assigned to its prototype; thus, all instances will share the same property.

Property Lookup

When accessing the properties of an object, JavaScript will traverse the prototype chain upwards until it finds a property with the requested name.

If it reaches the top of the chain - namely - and still hasn't found the specified property, it will return the value Taryn Rose Ghita Suede Booties w/ Tags Browse Fast Delivery For Sale Free Shipping Extremely 5lfXueGdT

The Prototype Property

While the prototype property is used by the language to build the prototype chains, it is still possible to assign any given value to it. However, primitives will simply get ignored when assigned as a prototype.

Assigning objects, as shown in the example above, will work, and allows for dynamic creation of prototype chains.


The lookup time for properties that are high up on the prototype chain can have a negative impact on performance, and this may be significant in code where performance is critical. Additionally, trying to access non-existent properties will always traverse the full prototype chain.

Also, when iterating over the properties of an object every property that is on the prototype chain will be enumerated.

Extension of Native Prototypes

One mis-feature that is often used is to extend or one of the other built in prototypes.

This technique is called Lanvin Suede FringeAccented Flats Discount Sneakernews Cheap Sale Best Sale Free Shipping Low Shipping Discount Low Price Fee Shipping Wide Range Of Cheap Price R6ogS3W
and breaks . While used by popular frameworks such as Trina Turk Suede Slingback Sandals Sale Footaction Newest Cheap Price Wholesale Quality 8z9KwnhZP
, there is still no good reason for cluttering built-in types with additional functionality.

The only good reason for extending a built-in prototype is to backport the features of newer JavaScript engines; for example, .

In Conclusion

It is essential to understand the prototypal inheritance model before writing complex code that makes use of it. Also, be aware of the length of the prototype chains in your code and break them up if necessary to avoid possible performance problems. Further, the native prototypes should never be extended unless it is for the sake of compatibility with newer JavaScript features.

Note: Simply using will result in both objects sharing the same prototype. Therefore, changes to either object's prototype will affect the prototype of the other as well, which in most cases is not the desired effect.

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Nanoparticle contacts open the way to better sensors

By Alexander Hellemans
Editor’s Picks

Graphene Devices Stand the Test of Time

Graphene Comes to the Rescue of Molecular Electronics

Nanoparticle May Drive Down Price of Photovoltaics

Last week, researchers at IBM Research-Zurich in Rüschlikon, Switzerland, and the Universities of Basel and Zurich announced in a letter published in Nature a new method for creating electrical contacts to individual molecules on a silicon chip. The advance could open up a promising new way to develop sensors and possibly other electronic or photonic applications of manipulating single molecules.

When, in the mid-1970s, researchers discovered single molecules with interesting electronic properties such as that of a diode, hopes were high that this would spur the development of a new semiconductor technology that might compete with silicon-based electronics.However, establishing electrical contacts to such molecules remained essentially an activity confined to the laboratory. While it is possible to make contact withthese molecules from the tips of scanning tunneling microscopes (STMs), these experiments required vacuum and low-temperature conditions.Moreover, single electrical junctions remained difficult to reproduce because they varied widely in the current they admitted to the molecule.These problems were the main reason why,up to now, no molecular-electronic devices were available.

“We needed to fabricate devices that are more or less identical, ambient stable, and that can be placed on a robust platform, such as a silicon chip, in numbers of several billions, to compete with CMOS technology,” says Pierre Hardy Suede Tassel Sandals w/ Tags Discount Big Sale Buy Cheap Fake Good Selling Cheap Online Fashion Style Cheap Price sK97ZfTIy
, of IBM Research, who is a coauthor of the Nature paper.

To accomplish that, the researchers first turned to a sandwich-on-silicon approach attempted in the past.But that did not work. On a silicon wafer, they created platinum electrodes, which they covered with a dielectric, a thin layer of nonconducting material.Then they created nanopores in this layer, using conventional etching techniques.They filled these pores with a solution of alkane-dithiol molecules and allowed the molecules in the solution to form a self-assembled monolayerin the pores and form a single monolayer of densely packed parallel oriented molecules.

Like the bottoms of wine bottles in a crate, one end of the molecules made contact with the exposed platinum layer at the bottom of the pores.Up to now, researchers had attempted to cover these nanopores with another thin platinum layer to form the upper contact.But the electrical contacts obtained in this way showed a wide variation in contact resistance caused by variations in the distances betweenthe molecules and the contact layer. The resultingdevice was unusable.They also tried graphene, with the same disappointing results, remembers Lörtscher.

require on the other hand is typically used to load code in a top-level JavaScript file or within a module should we wish to dynamically fetch dependencies. An example of its usage is:

The following is an example of defining an AMD-compatible plugin:

Note: Although css! is included for loading CSS dependencies in the above example, it's important to remember that this approach has some caveats such as it not being fully possible to establish when the CSS is fully loaded. Depending on how we approach our build process, it may also result in CSS being included as a dependency in the optimized file, so use CSS as a loaded dependency in such cases with caution. If interested in doing the above, we can also explore @VIISON's RequireJS CSS plugin further .

This example could simply be looked at as requirejs(["app/myModule"], function(){}) which indicates the loader's top level globals are being used. This is how to kick off top-level loading of modules with different AMD loaders however with a define() function, if it's passed a local require all require([]) examples apply to both types of loader (curl.js and RequireJS).

Defining AMD-compatible modules using Dojo is fairly straight-forward. As per above, define any module dependencies in an array as the first argument and provide a callback (factory) which will execute the module once the dependencies have been loaded. e.g:

Note the anonymous nature of the module, which can now be both consumed by a Dojo asynchronous loader, RequireJS or the standard 2018 Stella McCartney Vegan Leather Wedge Booties New Arrival Cheap Price 9SJlgE
module loader.

There are some interesting gotchas with module referencing that are useful to know here. Although the AMD-advocated way of referencing modules declares them in the dependency list with a set of matching arguments, this isn't supported by the older Dojo 1.6 build system - it really only works for AMD-compliant loaders. e.g:

This has many advantages over nested namespacing as modules no longer need to directly reference complete namespaces every time - all we require is the "dojo/cookie" path in dependencies, which once aliased to an argument, can be referenced by that variable. This removes the need to repeatedly type out "dojo." in our applications.

The final gotcha to be aware of is that if we wish to continue using the older Dojo build system or wish to migrate older modules to this newer AMD-style, the following more verbose version enables easier migration. Notice that dojo and dijit and referenced as dependencies too:

As we've seen in previous sections, design patterns can be highly effective in improving how we approach structuring solutions to common development problems. Wide Range Of Clearance Online Cheap Real Jimmy Choo Multistrap Glitter Sandals Discounts Online Sale Big Discount Shop Online e2zjsC8mav
has given some excellent presentations about AMD module design patterns covering the Singleton, Decorator, Mediator and others and I highly recommend checking out his slides if we get a chance.

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